正文内容

上市公司财务报表粉饰与分析案例(厦门大学黄世忠)pptx(已修改)

2023-04-25 15:44 本页面
 

【正文】 财务报表粉饰与分析 黄世忠 教授 CPA MBA 厦门大学管理学院副院长 电话: 05922513179 13906016965 电子邮件: 5/6/2023 1 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing 讲 授 大 纲 • 美国上市公司报表粉饰概述 • 美国上市公司报表粉饰的典型手段 – CFE调查报告总结的典型手段 – AICPA最新审计准则对舞弊的描述 – SEC前主席 Arthur Levitt的观点 – 审计总署( GAO)的调查 • 中国上市公司报表粉饰的典型手段 – 报表粉饰的传统手段 – 报表粉饰的现代手段 • 中国上市公司报表粉饰典型案例分析 • 财务报表分析框架( Harward Model of ) • 附录: SarbanesOxley Act – 简要介绍该法案对独立董事的启示,特别是与 CPA沟通应注意的问题 5/6/2023 2 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Overview of Financial Fraud 6152293020406080100Enron Xerox Rite Aid WorldComFaked Profit5/6/2023 3 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Biggest Bankruptcies Since 1980 1070634359 339255 244215 202170 168020040060080010001200WorldComEnronTexacoFCAAdelphiaPGEMcorp KmartNTLTotal Assets5/6/2023 4 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Debts owned to Banks and Institutional Investors by WorldCom ( Total Assets: BV $ 107 billion。 MV $15 billion。 Total Debts $41 billion) $ in million Bank Trust Amount Institutional Investors amount JP Man Trust Co. 17, CALPERS Deutsche Bank Prudential ABN Amco Bank Metropolitan Life Insur. Citibank Vanguard Fleet Travelers Asset mgt. Bank One Northwest Invest. Mgt. Mellon Bank Alliance Capital Mgt. Wells Fargo Bank American Express JP Man Chase Wellington Mgt. 5/6/2023 5 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Merck’ Faked Revenue 5501002003004005006001999 2023 2023Faked Revenue Total Revenue5/6/2023 6 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Financial Frauds and Independent Directors • Overview of financial frauds or earnings management • 其他公司 – Microsoft, GE, IBM, Boeing, Lucent, Cisco, Oracle, AOL, Nortel, Qwest, Tyco, Global Crossing, Cendant, WMX, Sunbeam, Adelphia 公司名称 (事务所名称) 舞弊种类 及金额 是否由 AC 发现? 是否由 CPA发现? 独立懂事 / 董事会人数 Enron (AA) 虚增利润 6亿美元 , 隐瞒负债 30多亿美元 否 否 15/17 Xerox (KPMG) 虚增利润 15亿美元 否 否 7/9 Rite Aid(KPMG) 虚增利润 22亿美元 否 否 7/9 WorldCom (AA) 虚增利润 93亿美元 否 否 9/11 5/6/2023 7 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing CFE’ s Classification Scheme Fraud Corruption Asset Misappropriation Fraudulent Statements Conflicts of Interest Bribery Illegal Gratuities Economic Extortion Cash Fraudulent Disbursements Inventories and All Other Assets Bogus Revenue Timing Differences Concealed L E Improper Disclosure Improper Valuation 5/6/2023 8 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing CFE: Duration of by Scheme Type 051015202530虚假报表 费用包销 篡改支票 虚开发票 受贿腐败 伪造工资 截留收入 挪用资产 座支现金舞弊期限(月)5/6/2023 9 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing CFE: Initial Detection of Fraud • 发现舞弊方法及比例 – 雇员举报 % – 偶然发现 % – 内部控制 % – 内部审计 % – 外部审计 % – 客户举报 % – 匿名举报 % – 卖方举报 % – 执法部门通报 % 140100 9982674633279020406080100120140160雇员举报 偶然发现 内部控制 内部审计 外部审计 客户举报 匿名举报供应商举报执法通报发现舞弊案件数5/6/2023 10 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing CFE: Effective Measures to Prevent Fraud 01234567强有力的内部控制 检查雇员背景常规舞弊审计 制定舞弊防范政策对舞弊提出起诉的意愿 雇员道德培训匿名舞弊报告机制 工作场所监视5/6/2023 11 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing SAS 99 :Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit • AICPA恢复公众信任的一个重大举措 – , AICPA发布采纳 SAS 99的决定 – 取代 SAS 82 ( 1996) – 自 2023年 12月 15日生效 – SAS将在 2023年 10月末或 11月初正式颁布 5/6/2023 12 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Significant Changes in the New Fraud Standard • 4个重大变化 – 进一步强调职业怀疑( Professional Skepticism)的重要性 • 对舞弊及其特征进行描述 – 要求审计小组应当直面舞弊 • 应当具有职业怀疑的心态( Mindset of PS)重大变化 – 实施意想不到的审计测试( Unpredictable Audit Tests) • 对客户没料到的地区、场所和账户进行测试 – 对管理当局逾越控制( Override of Control)作出反映 • 提出测试管理当局逾越控制的审计程序 5/6/2023 13 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Description and Characteristics of Fraud • 1个关键要素 – 舞弊是蓄意行为( Intentional Behavior) • 舞弊是个法律概念, CPA不对某项行为是否属于舞弊作出法律决定 • 舞弊与差错的差别在于是否故意造成错报或漏报 – 实际工作中难以判断,如不合理会计估计( Unreasonable Accounting Estimates) • 2种舞弊类型 • 虚假财务报告产生的错报 – Misstatements arising from fraudulent financial reporting • 挪用资产产生的错报 – Misstatements arising from misappropriation of Assets 5/6/2023 14 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Description and Characteristics of Fraud • 3个必备条件 – 动机或压力 • Management or employees have an incentive or are under pressure – 机会 • Circumstances exist (. absence of control, ineffective control, ability of management to override controls) that provide an opportunity for a fraud to be perpetrated – 理由 • Those involved are able to rationalize a fraudulent act as being consistent with their personal code of ethics 5/6/2023 15 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Triangle of Fraud • Albrecht 提出的舞弊铁三角 Pressure Opportunity Rationalization Fraud 5/6/2023 16 Comparative Study on Measures of Window Dressing Arthur Levitt’ s Comments on “ Number Game” • 5 Methods Game Playing identified by Levitt – Bigbath charges ( 洗大澡或巨额冲销) – Creative acquisition accounting (创造性并购会计) – Cookjar reserves (甜饼盒式准备金) – Revenue recognition (收入确认) – Materiality (重大性) 5/6/2023 17 Comparative Study on Measures of Window
点击复制文档内容
文库吧 www.wenkub.com
公安备案图鄂ICP备17016276号-1